This is the operation that separates the grain from the panicle without damaging it. It can be done by hand or mechnically. Mostly in small farms, hand-threshing is usually done with a flail or on an empty barrel. It is hard work and requires a lot of labor.
Mechanical threshing is done with fixed threshers (Borga, Votex, ASI). It is much faster and indispensable in intensive rice cropping. The selection of equipment depend on farmers' socio-economic condition, production systems and after-sales services.